Saturday, December 22, 2012

About the use of new technologies (reply to a request for a list of recommended readings)

A secondary math teacher in my school asked: "any recommendations or suggestions about any readings on the use of new technologies in the classroom and student learning?" and I wondered if the collective experience of this group could help me generate a list of good resources?

-- Seen on a Facebook group...

How do you use videos in your classroom?
What technology do you use?
What procedures do you use in your classes with technology?
How do you use technology in your classroom?

Short answer:   if you read just one article, make it  Clark's 2005 article about  five common Misconceptions about multimedia learning
These are the types of questions that principals usually ask about technology.

Here's what most people expect as an answer:
Links to articles
Links to videos that demonstrate what to use and how to use it.
How to Flip the Classroom
Katie Gimbar's presentation

Here's my attempt to describe the Flipped Classroom  How I use ipads to teach (to make presentations)
That's what most people want.  "Tell me what kind of devices to use and tell me how to use them."

But ... we have to ask other questions FIRST:
Reading about technology in the Nova ITDE program has made me want to focus more and more FIRST on the general principles of instruction used in the classroom.
What does the teacher assume about learning?
What do the students assume about learning?
What is the link between presentation (direct instruction) and learning (what happens inside the student's head)?

Start with getting the "right mindset" in the teachers and students
Dr. Fischler's book about commentaries concerning the transformation of schools
FREE BOOK     <<< GO HERE for insight into the transformation that is needed to support the new technology.
the one page list of quotations that are used in training for the transformation of education

Dan Pink's chapter about schools in Free Agent Nation (which appears as an article in Reason magazine, online)

The mindset of students can be altered by asking teachers to study this website and by bringing those quotes and exercises into class.


Then get the Clark readings (Richard Clark's "Media are mere vehicles" article is summarized)
 Clark's point is clear:   a focus on technology needs to begin with a focus on "what are your methods?"  and "What do you hope to achieve?"   Technology does not cause learning but it can be used to make the learning more efficient and long-lasting.

then Clark focuses on the 2006 findings about projects 
This article has been reworked into a popular format, published in American Educator in Spring 2012.
"Putting Students on the Path to Learning."
This article helps build understanding that there are limits to the use of videos and technology to assume that project-based learning will achieve results that are needed.   

Rosenshine's Principles of Instruction (distributed by UNESCO) are available online
Clark recommends this article.

Rosesnhine's 1997 article about "the case for teacher led instruction"  -- which is one strategy for the use of technology (since the teacher is in charge of the learning with the flipped classroom and videos presented  before classes)
 by Rosenshine

Clark's readings are collected here at USC (Univ of Southern Calif)

Another key reading is Clark's 2005 article about  five common Misconceptions about multimedia learning

Bio info on Clark

Center for Cognitive Technology


once the mindset is established, then the issues about the "best technologies" can be discussed
A good overview of Principles of Distance Learning (and technologies in general)
 see the TEACHERMAN, here is the link....

Procedures in Classroom (what technology should we use?)
and (What procedures should we use?)
Katie Gimbar lays out some good points
Search:  "katie gimbar why i flipped my classroom youtube"
  1. Why I Flipped My Classroom - YouTube
    May 2, 2011 - Uploaded by pocketlodge
    FAQ - Katie Gimbar's Flipped Classroom by pocketlodge 8,109 views · Thumbnail Katie Gimbar - Flipping ...

  2. Katie Gimbar's Flipped Classroom - why it has to be me! - YouTube
    Aug 6, 2011 - Uploaded by pocketlodge
    What If Students Don't Watch The Videos? - FAQ - Katie Gimbar'sFlipped Classroomby pocketlodge20,440 ...

  3. Katie Gimbar - Flipping The Classroom - Blended ... - YouTube

    Jul 6, 2011 - Uploaded by pocketlodge
    Why I Flipped My Classroomby pocketlodge97,682 views; Katie Gimbar's Flipped Classroom - why it has to be me...  

If you want to go beyond "what technologies should we use?," then you can ask, "How should we approach teaching in general?"

The issue of automated knowledge is overlooked, according to Clark

Here is an interview on YOUTUBE (excerpt) where Clark discusses automated knowledge
SEARCH:  youtube clark automated knowledge

This is my training workshop that brings together Daniel Pink, Thomas Friedman, Deming, and the insights of Clark, Fischler, Rosenshine and the innovations of MOOC and distance education.

Deeper Mindset work:  
W. Edwards Deming

Neil Postman and Teaching as a Subversive Activity, especially chapter 12

Quotations to drive the new mindset.  


I hope this list helps the math teacher see that the benefits of the technology depend on the quality of the school system...
Or the math teacher can read some videos and articles about "how to use ipads in math class" and avoid the stretching that Dr. Clark's articles will require.

How do we train teachers to use technology in schools?
That's a bigger question... 
Can we get the same or better results without the added technology?  Perhaps, if we follow Clark's focus on methods.   Improve the methods and you'll get improvements.

Teachers need to be coaches
Practice Makes Perfect: Teachers Need to Be Coaches.

See also the NY Times article in 16 January 2005 by Gopnik


Nightingale Initiative Phase 1 (get the PDF)
b)  Learn at their own pace

Students take charge of their learning.
Sal Khan: Making Personalized Education Possible

"taking ownership of your own learning..."


Look for information about Distance Education.
How to Organize Online Courses
Unit Module Topic
3 units, 5 weeks in a 15-week semester
5 Modules in one unit (one module per week)
3 to 5 Topics in one Module (learning objects, learning experiences)
3 units, 15 modules, 45 topics
3 topics per week, 15 weeks  -- M. Simonson

Learn about Equvalency Theory in Distance Education

How should we grade discussions?
Threaded discussion promote thinking about critical issues
1. post a meaningful question
2. direct response, post a comment about another student's response, then post a comment about other comments.
3.  eliminate meaningless postings.
4. grading:  outstanding, acceptable, poor
5.  rule of thumb:  10-20% of course grade's weight comes from the threaded discussion
-- M. Simonson

Nightingale Initiative Phase 1 (get the PDF)
In other words, the "Big Picture" shows the impact of technology on the Transformation of Education.  Using technology without transforming schools will miss some of the advantages that technology offers.

Transformation of Education
Christianson (Disrupting Class)
Transparency by Biennes, O'Toole and Goleman
Get the Manifesto PDF

Future of Learning by Maria Andersen

Personalized Learning Maria Andersen

Free Range Learning  (Maria Andersen)

Dan PINK and transformed Schools       the REASON article
search:  reason dan pink school
Paradigm shift described by Ken Robinson

Sugata Mitra and the "Grannies in Birmingham" teaching students in India.

View these at the Network of Educators Website
Dennis Littky's procedures to personalize high school
Nightingale Initiative Phase 1 (get the PDF)

The relationship of schools to neighborhoods
How can technology help shape a school into a community center?
Enrique Gonzalez
What is the Nightingale Initiative?
What is the D3 Lab?
How can technology support these programs?
What could your school do with this information?
Is the Nightingale Report more valuable than any information about "how to use technology in the classroom"?
Tony Blair Community Schools and the Ethos of schools

New Learning Institute  (How can technology support the community center?)   GET THE PLAN

New Procedures as described in 
Dennis Littky   page 34 of Big Picture

Edutopia asks the right question

To get an overview of how these books might fit together, see this two-minute presentation
Nightingale Initiative Phase 1 (get the PDF)

Our Unexamined Assumptions

Youtube Channel for Every Teacher who Wants One

Send suggestions for additional links and videos.

Nightingale Middle School with former Principal Enrique Gonzalez
If we want to personalize learning, as advocated by Salman Khan, then let's spend twenty minutes listening to Enrique on a tour of Nightingale School to learn how a school can turn into a community center, pulling in the resources of mentors in the neighborhood.

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